Frontiers in Infectious Disease Research

Infectious diseases kill more people worldwide than any other single cause. The diseases caused by germs and which may infect any part of the body are called infectious diseases. They can be spread by any means where there is a germ. They are caused by pathogenic contact. Vaccination microorganisms such as bacteria, virus, parasites and fungi. Germs can be spread by direct or indirect, maintenance of proper hygiene and medicines help in the prevention of infection.

Causes and Symptoms of Infectious Diseases

Infectious diseases are caused by organism bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites. Infection can be passed from direct contact person to person, insects or animals bite, contaminated food or water or organisms exposed environment. Signs and symptoms may vary depends on the organism causing the infection, but regularly includes fever and fatigue. Some of the mild infections can treat by rest and home remedies, while some deadly infections may require hospitalization.

 

Skin contact or injuries

Airborne germs

Contaminated food or water

Tick or mosquito bites

Sexual contact.

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Pediatric infectious diseases

If a child is suffering with periodic or persistent diseases caused by any infectious agents like bacteria, fungi, parasite or any other rare infection are Pediatric infectious diseases. Children with acquired or inherited disorders of immune system estimated and treated by division of Pediatric infectious diseases and provide guidance on travel immunization.

  • Perinatal HIV and Breast Feeding
  • Recent Epidemics
  • Fungal and Bacterial Infections
  • Neonatal Congenital Infections
  • Health care intervention
  • Vaccines and Immunization
  • General Pediatrics
  •  Health Care – Infectious Disease                             

Infection and Immunity

  • Mechanisms of molecular pathogenesis
  • Virulence factors
  • Cellular microbiology
  • Experimental models of infection
  • Host resistance or susceptibility
  • Innate and adaptive immune responses

Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases

The newly recognized and earlier unknown infections which cause public health problems either locally or globally are Emerging infectious diseases.  Infections showing upward trends in frequency or occurrence worldwide have appeared in areas where they are not earlier found. Infectious that is known earlier, had fallen to low levels that they were no longer recognized public health problems.

 

  • Dengue Fever
  • Malaria
  • Meningitis
  • Rabies
  • Cholera
  • Polio                                                                                 

Antimicrobial/ Antibiotic/ Antibacterial Resistance

Chemical substances or drugs that are used to kill or slow the growth of microbes are antimicrobial agents. There are different types of antimicrobial drugs based on the organism they act against example antibiotics acts against bacteria and anti-fungal agents act against fungi. Synthetic chemicals as well as chemical substances or metabolic products made by microorganisms and chemical substances derived from plants can also be treated by antimicrobial agents.

  • Chemotherapy
  • Anti-fungal
  • Antiviral
  • Antibacterials
  • Antiparasitics
  • Antimicrobial Pesticides                                                             

Infectious Diseases Vaccines

Infectious Diseases Vaccination against bacterial and viral diseases is an integral part of communicable disease control worldwide. Vaccination against a specific disease not only reduces the incidence of that disease, it reduces the social and economic burden of the disease on communities. High immunization can lead to complete blocking of transmission for many vaccine preventable diseases (VPD). The worldwide eradication of smallpox and the near eradication of polio from many countries provide excellent examples of the role of immunization in disease control.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases/ Sexually Transmitted Infections

Infections that are passed from one person to another through sexual contact is known as STDs (Sexually Transmitted Diseases). Bacteria, parasites, yeast and viruses are the causes of sexually transmitted diseases, there are more than 20 types of STDs example genital herpes, gonorrhea, HIV/AIDS, syphilis and trichomoniasis etc. STDs affect both men and women, but in many cases health problems are severe for women. STDs caused by bacteria, yeast or parasites can be treated by antibiotics, there is no cure for STDs caused by virus but medicines can help in prevention and control.

  • HPV
  • Gential Herpes
  • Chlamydia
  • Gonorrhea
  • HIV/AIDS
  • Syphilis
  • Hepatitis                                                                                  

Epidemiological Diseases

The study of epidemiology of infectious disease involves the occurrence, frequency and factors of infections in populations. Infectious diseases are one of the major causes of sickness and death around the world.  Infectious diseases implement and evaluate involvements at the individual and community level to prevent infection and, among those with infections, to inhibit development of disease or disease-associated death and ill health.

  • Public Health
  • Surveillance and Detection
  • Genomic Research
  • Chronic Diseases .
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Malarial and Hemorrhagic fevers

and affect to body ability to regulate itself are the common features of VHFs. Protozoan diseases caused by four species of plasmodium genus is malaria. VHFs cause mild diseases but some like Ebola or Marburg, cause severe diseases and Fever which including Ebola and Marburg, Lassa fever, and yellow fever viruses with a four families of viruses is viral Hemorrhagic fever. Damage of blood vessels and affect to organs group of death.

 

Food and water borne infections

Consuming contaminated foods or beverages causes foodborne diseases. The beginning of symptoms may occur within minutes to weeks and regularly occur as flu-like symptoms. Symptoms of infected person are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or fever as the symptoms are flu- like many people may not recognize that the sickness is caused by bacteria or other pathogen in food. Foodborne disease can be prevented by proper cooking or by processing the food to kill the pathogens.

Pulmonary/Chest infections

Infection of the lungs or airways is known as chest infection. The main types of chest infection are bronchitis and pneumoniahttp://infectiousdiseases.jacobsconferences.com/. Most viruses lead to increase in bronchitis, whereas most bacteria lead to increase in development of pneumonia. When an infected person coughs or sneezes infections are usually spread. Virus or bacteria fluid droplets into the air, where they can be inhaled in by others cause infections.

  • Chronic Pulmonary Infections
  • Acute bronchitis
  • Pneumonia
  • Diagnosis and Treatment.
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Neurological infectious diseases

Infections of nervous system are generally known as neurological infections. The most challenging neurological disorders among the nervous system are viral and immune mediated disorders. Multiple sclerosis is one of the most common neuro immune disorders, and the most common viral infection of the nervous system is HIV. The progressive loss of neurons, resulting in significant cognitive and motor dysfunction is common to both disorders.

  • Fungal
  • Protozoal
  • Bacterial
  • Viral
  • Post-infectious diseases
  • Meningitis
  • Encephalitis
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Diagnosis of infectious diseases

Medical diagnosis is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person’s symptoms and signs. Laboratory tests may identify organisms directly (e.g., visually, using a microscope growing the organism in culture) or indirectly (e.g., identifying antibodies to the organism). General types of tests include microscopy, culture and immunologic tests (agglutination tests such as latex agglutination, enzyme immunoassays, western blot, precipitation tests and complement fixation tests) and nucleic acid/ non-nucleic acid-based identification methods. Sub types of diagnoses include clinical, laboratory, radiology, principal and admitting diagnosis. Advanced methods have been implemented to diagnose the infection in any part of the body. Examples include biomarkers/ Elisa test/ chest x ray/ skin biopsy/ tympanometry and tympanocentesis.

Blood stream infections/Bacteremia/Septicemia/Blood poisoning

Blood stream infections/ bacteremia/ septicemia/ blood poisoning occurs when a bacterial infection elsewhere in the body such as in the lungs or skin which enters the blood stream. This is dangerous because the bacteria and their toxins can be carried through the blood stream to the entire body.

Air-borne infectious diseases and tuberculosis

Airborne diseases are caused by pathogens that can be transmitted through air. When an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks, spewing nasal and throat secretions into the air airborne diseases can be spreader. Tuberculosis (TB) is primarily an airborne disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which are spread person-to-person through the air. This bacterium mainly affects the lungs, but may adversely affect other organs.

Surgical site infections

Surgical site infections are the infections which may occur within 30 days after the operation and are observed in the parts of skin and subcutaneous tissue of the incision.

Noscomial infections/Hospital acquired infections/Health care associated infections

Nosocomial infections/ hospital acquired infections/ health care associated infections are the infections that are contracted from the environment or staff of a healthcare facility and they spread in the hospital environment, nursing home environment, rehabilitation facility and clinic or other clinical settings.

Infectious diseases vaccines

Infectious diseases vaccines are the vaccines which prevent the infectious diseases and infectious diseases like diphtheria, Hemophilus influenzae serotype b infection, hepatitis b, measles, meningitis, mumps, pertussis, poliomyelitis, rubella, tetanus, tuberculosis and yellow fever are preventable through vaccines.

Treatment for infectious diseases

Treatment of viral infections such as HIV involves patient care and moral support including antiretroviral therapy. Bacterial infections can be treated by administering antibiotics to the patients. Yeast infections can be primarily treated by sterilization methods. Parasitic infections can be treated by antiparasitic drugs. Diseases such as cancer can be treated by chemotherapy. Recent techniques have proved that there is no disease that cannot be treated.

Viral infections

Ebola viral infection is caused by virus transmitted through body fluids and through air. It occurs rarely but it is very deadly which results in death and outbreak. Ebola virus disease symptoms are very severe which appears in 2-3 days. Ebola primary symptoms include fever, sore throat, muscular pain and headaches then followed by vomiting, diarrhea, rash, decreased function of the liver and kidneys then loss of blood internally and externally finally leading to low blood pressure and fluid loss resulting in death.  Zika virus disease is caused by a virus transmitted primarily by aedes mosquitoes. People with zika virus disease can have symptoms including mild fever, skin rash, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint pain and malaise or headache